in this article we will discussing about meaning , scope, type of micro teaching
Meaning of Micro Teaching
The art of teaching is a complex process. It simply doesn’t mean transforming knowledge from one to another. It requires good verbal and non-verbal communicating skills.
It requires various techniques to transfer the knowledge effectively. Hence, emerged a concept of Microteaching.
Micro teaching is an Innovative technique used for the teacher trainees to enhance their classroom teaching skills, attitude and behavior. This concept was first introduced by Dwight.W Allen in mid-1960 s at Stanford University.
Micro-teaching is a teacher training technique which aims at modifying Teachers behaviour according to the specific objectives.
It is a controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on teaching behaviour in the learner-teacher training programme.
Definition of Micro Teaching
It has been defined in a number of ways, some selected definition are given below.
Allen. D.W (1966): Micro Teaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time.
Allen. D.W and Eve. A.W (1968) Micro-teaching is defined as a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specified teaching behaviour and to practices teaching under controlled conditions.
Bush. R.N (1968): माइक्रो टीचिंग is a teacher education technique which allows teachers to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in a planned series of 5-10 minutes to encounter with a small group of real learners, often with an opportunity to observe the result on videotape.
Singh. L.C (1977): Micro teaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a group of five pupils for a small period of 5-20 minutes. Such a situation offers a helpful setting for an experienced or inexperienced teacher to acquire new teaching skills and to refine old ones.
Objectives of Micro teaching :-
- To enable teacher trainees to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled
- conditions To enable teacher trainees to master a number of teaching skills
- To enable teacher trainees to gain confidence in teaching
Characteristics of Micro teaching
- It is an individualized training technique
- It is a part of practicum for teacher trainees.
- It is not a teaching method or technique.
- It scales down the complexities of real teaching practicing one skill at a time.
- It reduces the class size to 5 – 10 pupils
- It limits the content to a single concept.
- It reduces the duration of lesson to 5-10 minutes
- Immediate feedback helps in improving, fixing and motivating learning immediate peer
- feedback and feed back through tape recorder and CCTV. Steps of Micro teaching
- Student-teacher plans a short lesson plan on the basis of the demonstrated skill for his/her practice.
- The teacher educator gives the demonstration of the skill in micro teaching in simulated conditions to the teacher trainees.
- educator provides the theoretical information about micro teaching to the learner teachers.
- The student-teacher teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils. His lesson is supervised by the peer group and supervisors.
- the light of the feedback given by the supervisor, the teacher trainee re-plans the lesson in order to use the skill in the more effective manner in a second trial.
- On the basis of the observation of a lesson, the supervisor gives feedback to the teacher trainee.
- The supervisor observed the re-teach lesson and gives re-feedback to the teacher trainee with convincing arguments and reasons.
- teach re-teach cycle may be repeated several times till adequate mastery level is achieved.
- The revised lesson is taught to another comparable group of pupils
Phases of Micro teaching :-
There are three phases of micro teaching procedure:
- Knowledge acquisition phase (Pre-active phase): In this stage provide knowledge about teaching skills, observe the demonstration of teaching skills and analyze and discuss the demonstration of the teaching skills.
- Skill acquisition phase(Inter-active phase) :- It includes activities such as planning and preparation of micro lesson for a skill, practicing the skill, evaluation of the practised skill and re-plan and re teach and re feedback till the desired level of skill is achieved.
- Transfer phase (Post-active phase): It gives the opportunity to use the skill in normal classroom teaching and integrate the different skills practiced. Teaching skills may be defined as a set of teacher behaviour which is especially effective in bringing about desired changes in pupil-teachers. The activities and behaviours that facilitate learning in the learners are known as teaching skills. The instructional techniques and procedures used by the teacher in the classroom are also known as teaching skills.
Important Core Skills of Micro teaching :-
- Questioning skill:– They are instructional cues or stimuli that convey the learners the content elements to be learned and directions on what they are to do and how they have to do it. They are important for interactive investigation of the content. Questions motivate learners, increases learners participation, arouse learner’s interest and compel them to think at higher cognitive level concentrating on the subject content keeping them alert.
- Explanation skill:– To present the subject matter in a simplified form before the learner and making it acquirable is explanation skill. It involves the ability of the teacher to describe logically the how, why and when concept. It requires fluency in the language and subject expertise.
- Stimulus variation skill: It is described as the deliberate change in the behaviour of the teacher in order to sustain the attention of the learners throughout the lesson. It determines the teacher’s liveliness in the classroom. It includes teachers body movements, gestures, eye contact, voice modulation and pause.
- Blackboard skill:– It is an important effective visual aid for teaching.Teachers make extensive use of blackboard for writing, Drawing. legibility, neatness, clarity, visibility are the components of blackboard skill to be mastered for proficiency.
- Response management skill:– It is the ability to answer the queries of learners for information in a continuous and consistent manner to satisfy their curiosity and maintain sustained interest.
- Reinforcement skill:– It is the skill for strengthening the connection between stimulus and response. Positive reinforcement increases learners’ response.
- Classroom management skill:– It refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep learners organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and academically productive during a class.
Merits of Micro teaching :-
- It helps to develop and master important teaching skills.
- It helps to accomplish specific teacher competencies.
- It caters to the need of individual differences in the teacher training.
- It is more effective in modifying teacher behaviour.
- It is an individualized training technique.
- It employs real teaching situation for developing skills.
- It reduces the complexity of teaching process as it is a scaled down teaching.
- It helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching.
Demerits of Micro teaching:-
- It is skill oriented training not content.
- A large number of trainees cannot be given an opportunity for re-teaching and replanning.
- It is time-consuming technique
- It requires special classroom settings.
- It covers only a few specific skills.
- It deviates from normal classroom teaching.
- It gives rise to administrative problems while arranging.